Trustees and directors are required to avoid conflicts of interest, where possible, and where it cannot be avoided, to inform the respective board/s on which they serve timeously of conflicts or potential conflicts of interest that they may have in relation to particular items of business and they are obliged to recuse themselves from discussions or decisions in relation to such matters. Trustees and directors are also required to disclose their interests in, and directorships of, other companies/entities in accordance with statutory requirements and to inform the boards when any changes occur. During the year ended 31 December 2016, none of the directors/trustees had disclosed any interest in contracts or arrangements entered into by the PPS Group. The Chief Executive is required to disclose any appointments to non-PPS Group Boards. Directors and trustees are required to submit and maintain written declarations of interests, which are presented to the respective boards at each board meeting and board members are required to acknowledge in writing that they have read the written disclosures submitted.